Create a quick recording of the reading selection so that students can read along as they listen. Provide text that has some words already highlighted. If using Google classroom, create a shared presentation and have students all contribute one page to the presentation.
Then, invite them to share their work with an audience of parents or another class of students. Assessment 5 minutes Assign the question and answer portion of each individual reading assignment. Rotate around the room and ask students to tell you two facts that they learned from reading about their Native American tribe. Distribute one 3X3 inch sticky note to each student. Ask the students to write the name of their tribe on the top of the sticky note. Next, ask the students to write one thing they learned about that tribe on their sticky note.
Bring the class together in a group and invite students to come up to the front of the class and share one fact that they learned from their research. Ask the students to add their fact to the piece of "Native American" chart paper. These diseases killed millions of Native Americans and resulted in a huge population decline. Animals which the indigenous people had never seen, including cattle, sheep, pigs and horses, were also brought to the North American continent by Europeans.
Horses had been hunted to extinction by the early settlers of the Americas thousands of years before the Europeans arrived. The reintroduction of the horse by the Europeans had an incredible impact on the American Indians. They learned to use horses for travel, hunting, and warfare. There were several very famous Native Americans: Pocahontas — She was made famous by the Disney film about her friendship with the early American settlers of Jamestown, Virginia.
Geronimo — He was a famous Apache military and spiritual leader. For several decades he fought Mexican and United States forces who were trying to take over Apache territory.
The most important Native American food crop was corn, or what they called maize. Other important American Indian crops included squash, potatoes, wild rice, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, beans, pumpkins, sunflowers, peanuts, peppers, chocolate, and avocados.
Native American tribes also had diets that included a lot of meat. These meats were: elk, buffalo, caribou, rabbit, deer, salmon, fish, ducks, turkeys, geese, pheasant, shellfish and other marine animals like whales and seal. Porcupines and snakes were also hunted as food. Native Americans also ate honey, eggs, maple syrup, nuts, salt, pine nuts, cranberries, blueberries, raspberries, acorns, root vegetables and greens. Native American cooking tended to be simple.
Most Native Americans preferred to eat their food very fresh, without many spices. Their descendants explored along the west coast of North America, and as early as 13, years ago, they had covered both continents, reaching all the way to the southern tip of South America. It is not exactly known when the first Native Americans arrived in North America, but some archaeologists scientists who study the remains of past human lives believe it might have been as long as 40, years ago.
Native Americans lived throughout North and South America. Different tribes and cultures lived in different areas. The Native Americans were grouped into tribes or nations usually based on the area they lived in and their culture such as their religion, customs, and language. Sometimes smaller tribes were part of a bigger tribe or nation. As far as historians can tell, these tribes were fairly peaceful prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus and the Europeans.
The Native Americans did not write down or record their history, so we have to find out about them in other ways. Today, archaeologists are able to learn a lot about past cultures when they discover artefacts such as tools and weapons. Much of what we know comes from the written accounts of the first Europeans to arrive. We can also learn from traditions and stories that have been passed down within the tribes from generation to generation.
Native Americans lived in a wide variety of homes. What really happened at the first Thanksgiving in ? The Pilgrims did not introduce the concept of thanksgiving; the New England tribes already had autumn harvest feasts of thanksgiving. To the original people of this continent, each day is a day of thanksgiving to the Creator.
In the fall of , William Bradford, the governor of the Plymouth Colony, decided to have a Plymouth harvest feast of thanksgiving and invited Massasoit, the Grand Sachem of the Wampanoag Federation, to join the Pilgrims.
Massasoit came with approximately 90 warriors and brought food to add to the feast, including venison, lobster, fish, wild fowl, clams, oysters, eel, corn, squash and maple syrup.
Massasoit and the ninety warriors stayed in Plymouth for three days. These original Thanksgiving foods are far different from the meals prepared in modern Thanksgiving celebrations. Squanto died in , but Massasoit outlived the era of relative peace in colonial New England. Colonial authorities found justification to kill most of the Pequot men and enslave the captured women and their children.
Pequot slaves were sent to Bermuda and the West Indies. In the official number of Pequot people living in Connecticut was Similar declines in Native population took place throughout New England as an estimated three hundred thousand Indians died by violence, and even more were displaced, in New England over the next few decades. Looking at this history raises a question: Why should Native peoples celebrate Thanksgiving?
Many Natives particularly in the New England area remember this attempted genocide as a factual part of their history and are reminded each year during the modern Thanksgiving. They gather at the feet of a statue of Grand Sachem Massasoit of the Wampanoag to remember and reflect in the hope that America will never forget.
Do I celebrate Thanksgiving? But I do take advantage of the holiday and get together with family and friends to share a large meal without once thinking of the Thanksgiving in I think it is the same in many Native households.
I turn to the Internet to find out what Native people think of Thanksgiving. A few of the responses I have received over the years, beginning with the most recent and ending with comments from when I unfortunately didn't note where people were writing from : Wellington, Kansas: Thanksgiving was a blending of two different cultures, one culture helping another to survive.
The historical knowledge we have now of what was actually taking place may not be the same as what was being experienced in those days. Our assessment now may not be fair because of all that the Native people have endured. Exeter, California: Being the only Native American classroom teacher at a public school, raised mostly in an urban setting steeped heavy in traditional American holidays, and around many other native people on weekends while traveling to dance, this has always been a challenging question for me that I cannot claim to know the answer for.
I see many other teachers I work with who are not native struggle with knowing how to address the issue comfortably. I have to say, I have fear that if we avoid the issue altogether, Native people will be forgotten about. I have seen some teachers decide to stop teaching about Native Americans for fear of offending. I personally get sad when I see that happen. I know Thanksgiving is a controversial subject, and there are so many viewpoints. I share the modern theme of Thanksgiving, which I think has good intentions—family and community.
I have also chosen to teach about Native American culture, even more heavily in November because of Thanksgiving, even though it is no longer a part of the curriculum. I have found ways to integrate it while teaching something that I think is important. I do an assembly for the students in which we dance, and I emphasize how it is not possible to teach everything there is to know about Native Americans in just one assembly.
I emphasize the diversity among native people. Sevierville, Tennessee: Regardless of all the political views of Thanksgiving, we can all find something to be thankful for! San Antonio, Texas: Except for the last four years, the twenty years before that I spent 95 percent of my Thanksgivings at the table of my brother-in-law.
Our gatherings were about giving thanks for what we had. As for Native American history being left out of teaching, it is an outrage. Educate our fellow educators on how to teach it. It would be a great way to help others teach courses and show how to respect the culture. Edmonton, Alberta: We have family members with addiction issues.
The kids get to eat, which my mom loves. And we are thankful not only to survive colonization, but also grateful to feed family. Norman, Oklahoma: We celebrate and give thanks for our loved ones' being able to be together again. But when my daughter was young and the realization hit, as it does all young American Indians, she said to me , "Do you think we should have helped them?
Hydro, Oklahoma: Could we just start over and go forward? We can't change the past, but we can work for peace and unity in the future. History needs to be taught correctly in our schools—that is what needs to happen.
Similar to the idea that our dances fall on the 4th of July and instead of celebrating independence, it is more like a homecoming to our Kiowa people. Id majorid customerid college descriptors descriptorssecondary degree majorname majorurl majorshortname abroaddesc majordescription also bucket dateenter abroad. Ask the students to write or draw anything that they know about the topic of Native Americans on the chart paper. The root keys of modern Native American flutes span a range of about three and a half octaves, from C2 to A5.