It is your first and probably only opportunity to attract the reader's attention. In this way, remember that the first readers are the Editor and the referees. Also, readers are the potential authors who will cite your article, so the first impression is powerful! We are all flooded by publications, and readers don't have time to read all scientific production. They must be selective, and this selection often comes from the title. Reviewers will check whether the title is specific and whether it reflects the content of the manuscript.
Editors hate titles that make no sense or fail to represent the subject matter adequately. Hence, keep the title informative and concise clear, descriptive, and not too long.
You must avoid technical jargon and abbreviations, if possible. This is because you need to attract a readership as large as possible. Dedicate some time to think about the title and discuss it with your co-authors. Here you can see some examples of original titles, and how they were changed after reviews and comments to them: Example 1 Original title: Preliminary observations on the effect of salinity on benthic community distribution within a estuarine system, in the North Sea Revised title: Effect of salinity on benthic distribution within the Scheldt estuary North Sea Comments: Long title distracts readers.
Remove all redundancies such as "studies on," "the nature of," etc. Never use expressions such as "preliminary. Example 2 Original title: Action of antibiotics on bacteria Revised title: Inhibition of growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by streptomycin Comments: Titles should be specific. Think about "how will I search for this piece of information" when you design the title. The title is nonsense. All materials have properties of all varieties.
You could examine my hair for its electrical and optical properties! You MUST be specific. I haven't read the paper but I suspect there is something special about these properties, otherwise why would you be reporting them? Try to avoid this kind of response! They are the label of your manuscript.
It is true that now they are less used by journals because you can search the whole text. However, when looking for keywords, avoid words with a broad meaning and words already included in the title.
Some journals require that the keywords are not those from the journal name, because it is implicit that the topic is that. Only abbreviations firmly established in the field are eligible e. Again, check the Guide for Authors and look at the number of keywords admitted, label, definitions, thesaurus, range, and other special requests. For example, here you can include technical help and assistance with writing and proofreading. Probably, the most important thing is to thank your funding agency or the agency giving you a grant or fellowship.
In the case of European projects, do not forget to include the grant number or reference. Also, some institutes include the number of publications of the organization, e. My paper studies whether X therapy improves the cognitive function of patients suffering from dementia. It was a randomized trial. I studied 40 cases from six cities in Japan. There was an improvement in the cognitive function of patients.
Use your answers to list key words. X therapy. Revision of the theory of phototropism in plants: a new interpretation of a classical experiment. Planta Went's classical experiment on the diffusion of auxin activity from unilaterally illuminated oat coleoptile tips Went , was repeated as precisely as possible. In agreement with Went's data with the Avena curvature assay, the agar blocks from the illuminated side of oat Avena sativa L. However, determination of the absolute amounts of indoleacetic acid IAA in the agar blocks, using a physicochemical assay following purification, showed that the IAA was evenly distributed in the blocks from the illuminated and shaded sides.
In the blocks from the shaded and dark-control halves the amounts of IAA were 2. Chromatography of the diffusates prior to the Avena curvature test demonstrated that the amounts of two growth inhibitors, especially of the more polar one, were significantly higher in the agar blocks from the illuminated side than in those from the shaded side and the dark control.
These results show that the basic experiment from which the Cholodny-Went theory was derived does not justify this theory. The data rather indicate that phototropism is caused by the light-induced, local accumulation of growth inhibitors against a background of even auxin distribution, the diffusion of auxin being unaffected.
Excerpted from: Farmer, E. Interplant communication: airborne methyl jasmonate induces synthesis of proteinase inhibitors in plant leaves. Inducible defensive responses in plants are known to be activated locally and systematically by signaling molecules that are produced at sites of pathogen or insect attacks, but only one chemical signal, ethylene, is known to travel through the atmosphere to activate plant defensive genes.
Methyl jasmonate, a common plant secondary compound, when applied to surfaces of tomato plants, induces the synthesis of defensive proteinase inhibitor proteins in the treated plants and in nearby plants as well. The presence of methyl jasmonate in the atmosphere of chambers containing plants from three species of two families, Solanaceae and Fabaceae, results in the accumulation of proteinase inhibitors in leaves of all three species.
When sagebrush, Artemesia tridentata, a plant shown to possess methyl jasmonate in leaf surface structures, is incubated in chambers with tomato plants, proteinase inhibitor accumulation is induced in the tomato leaves, demonstrating that interplant communication can occur from leaves of one species of plant to leaves of another species to activate the expression of defensive genes.
Excerpted from: Shukla, A. Cytokinins in a genic male sterile line of Brassica napus. The failure or inability of an individual to produce functional gametes under a given set of environmental conditions is known as sterility. Male sterility in plants is generally associated with the lack of production of viable pollen; however its expression can vary Frankel and Galun , Kaul In any event, male sterility is of fundamental importance in the production of hybrid seeds and in breeding programs.
Plant growth substances, both exogenously applied and endogenous, have often been implicated in the regulation of male sterility in several plant species Frankel and Galun , Kaul Cytokinins, gibberellins, auxins and abscisic acid, as well as polyamines, are all known to affect pollen and stamen development in a number of species e.
Thus, an analysis of a number of cytokinins in various organs of the wild type and genic male sterile plants was conducted. Excerpted from: Reader, R. Species-dependent effects of seed predation and ground cover on seedling emergence of old-field forbs.
A major goal of plant ecology is to explain spatial variation in a species frequency of occurrence. Spatial variation in seed predation may contribute to spatial variation in plant frequency by reducing seed supply sufficiently to limit seedling emergence more at one location than another Louda , Anderson Spatial variation in seed predation is well documented e.
Since factors such as dense ground cover may suppress seedling emergence regardless of the amount of seed predation Harper , additional studies are needed to clarify the effect of seed predation on seedling emergence.
Therefore, we examined the effects of both seed predation and ground cover i. Extracted from: Sakoda, M. Mode of action of natural growth inhibitors in radish hypocotyl elongation -- influence of raphanusanins on auxin-mediated microtubule orientation.
Seeds of Raphanus sativus L. After 3 days in darkness at 25oC, 4-mm hypocotyl segments were excised below the hook of the 3 cm long etiolated seedlings. In other experiments, segments were preincubated for 1 h in small petri dishes containing 1 mM IAA solution, and then raphanusanin B was added to the medium final concentrations 1 or 3 mM. Segment lengths were measured using a microscope with microgauge.
All manipulations were carried out under dim green light 3mW m Excerpted from: Kanbe, T. Dynamics of cytoplasmic organelles in the cell cycle of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe: Three-dimensional reconstruction from serial sections.
Referring back to the working title can help you reorient yourself back to the main purpose of the study if you feel yourself drifting off on a tangent while writing.
The Final Title Effective titles in academic research papers have several characteristics. Indicate accurately the subject and scope of the study. Avoid using abbreviations. Use words that create a positive impression and stimulate reader interest.
The researcher describes the experimental design, the apparatus, methods of gathering data and type of control. Probably, the most important thing is to thank your funding agency or the agency giving you a grant or fellowship. This is a brief, all encompassing section summarizing what you discuss in the rest of the paper, and should be written last, after you know what you have said! Use median and interpercentile range to report skewed data. Excerpted from: Farmer, E.
You can use in-text citations in this section to situate your research within the body of literature. In any event, male sterility is of fundamental importance in the production of hybrid seeds and in breeding programs. Use full terms instead. Writing the scientific paper in the investigative lab. I haven't read the paper but I suspect there is something special about these properties, otherwise why would you be reporting them?
Use words that create a positive impression and stimulate reader interest. Nov 04, 1. The complete list of authors will appear in the full citation at the end of your paper. We can tailor your paper to specific journal guidelines at your request.
One author: 'Scott's model fails to Without them, most papers may never be read or even found by interested readers Do not repeat the information you presented in the results or the introduction unless it is necessary for a discussion of the overall implications of the research. You may do further experiments, derivations, or simulations. Note that "keywords" is one word with no space and is followed by a colon: Keywords: paper format, scientific writing. Do not include any information that is not contained in the body of the paper.
If the title is too long it usually contains too many unnecessary words, e. I studied 40 cases from six cities in Japan. This section should be written in the past tense when referring to this experiment.
However, a title or subtitle can be in the form of a question. Never use expressions such as "preliminary. For example, here you can include technical help and assistance with writing and proofreading.
Long introductions put readers off. If modified standard techniques were used, describe the changes.
Journal title volume: pages. Processes of Organic Evolution. It gives key results but minimizes experimental details. If a laboratory handout was used it is only a beginning and must be cited. Check the use of punctuation e. The abstract should present, in about words, the purpose of the paper, general materials and methods including, if any, the scientific and common names of organisms , summarized results, and the major conclusions.
In the text of this section describe your results do not list actual numbers, but point out trends or important features. Use current nomenclature from the field of study. Occurrence of indoleacetic acid in the bryophytes.