How to write a scientific research paper conclusion and recommendations
Restrict or expand results, including warning the reader how and why they should not generalize conclusions or suggesting ways to safely generalize. Mention practical applications, if any. Define unanswered questions. Give recommendations for further research. The digression—stay focused on your research question. Do not digress or provide generalities.
Sample Conclusion Hacker, Diana. Explanation Recent research on cold-water immersion incidents has provided a more complete understanding of the physiological processes occurring during drowning and near-drowning accidents. Current findings suggest that the cooperative effect of the mammalian diving reflex and hypothermia plays a critical role in patient survival during a cold-water immersion incident.
However, the relationship between the two processes is still unclear. Because it is impossible to provide an exact reproduction of a particular drowning incident within the laboratory, research is hampered by the lack of complete details surrounding drowning incidents.
Situation 2: Critique in Conclusion of Paper — there are two organizational patterns 1 — The first paragraph is summary, second paragraph is critique, third paragraph is recommendations note: second paragraph is more properly understood as a functional section as you may need more than one paragraph! Conclusions In summary, during the normal ageing process, animals experience age-related cognitive decline.
Historically, it was thought that primary contributions to the aetiology of this decline were massive cell loss 1 and deterioration of dendritic branching 17, However, we now know that the changes occurring during normal ageing are more subtle and selective than was once believed. Of the brain regions affected by ageing, the hippocampus and the PFC seem to be particularly vulnerable, but even within and between these regions the impact of ageing on neuronal function can differ.
The morphology of neurons in the PFC is more susceptible to age-related change, as these cells show a decrease in dendritic branching in rats 30, 31 and humans 32, There is also evidence of a small but significant decline in cell number in area 8A of monkeys that is correlated with working memory impairments The outstanding properties of most plasmas applied to processing of materials are associated with nonequilibrium conditions.
These properties present a challenge to the plasma scientist and an opportunity to the technologist. The opportunities for materials processing stem from the ability of a plasma to provide a highly excited medium that has no chemical or physical counterpart in a natural, equilibrium environment. Plasmas alter the normal pathways through which chemical systems evolve from one stable state to another, thus providing the potential to produce materials with properties that are not attainable by any other means.
Applications of plasma-based systems used to process materials are diverse because of the broad range of plasma conditions, geometries, and excitation methods that may be used. The scientific underpinnings of plasma applications are multidisciplinary and include elements of electrodynamics, atomic science, surface science, computer science, and industrial process control.
Because of the diversity of applications and the multidisciplinary nature of the science, scientific understanding lags technology. This report highlights this critical issue. A summary of the many industrial applications of plasma-based systems for processing materials is included in Chapter 2.
Electronics and aerospace are the two major industries that are served by plasma processing technologies, although the automotive industry is likely to become a significant user of plasma-processed materials like those now in widespread use in the aerospace industry. The critical role of plasma processing technology in industry is illustrated in Chapter 2. For the electronics industry more than for any other considered by the panel, the impact of—and the critical and urgent need for—plasma-based materials processing is overwhelming.
Thus Chapter 3 further elucidates plasma processing of electronic materials and, in particular, the use of plasmas in fabricating microelectronic components. The plasma equipment industry is an integral part of the electronics industry and has experienced dramatic growth in recent years because of the increasing use of plasma processes to meet the demands of fabricating devices with continually shrinking dimensions.
In Japan, on the other hand, equipment vendors and device manufacturers are tightly linked and are often parts of the same company. Plasma processes used today in fabricating microelectronic devices have been developed largely by time-consuming, costly, empirical exploration.
The chemical and physical complexity of plasma-surface interactions has so far eluded the accurate numerical simulation that would enable process design. Similarly, plasma reactors have also been developed by trial and error. This is due, in part, to the fact that reactor design is intimately intertwined with the materials process for which it will be used.
Nonetheless, fundamental studies of surface processes and plasma phenomena—both experimental and numerical—have contributed to process development by providing key insights that enable limitation of the broad process-variable operating space. The state of the science that underpins plasma processing technology in the United States is outlined in Chapter 4.
Although an impressive arsenal of both experimental and numerical tools has been developed, significant gaps in understanding and lack of instrumentation limit progress. Remember, life is never that simple. However, remember not to introduce any new material in the conclusion. There is no need to go over everything again that you have already mentioned; this would be unnecessarily boring and tedious.
Make sure that the conclusion is based on what you have said before. It is often tempting to go off at a tangent and to say things that are completely unrelated to the topic. Be wary of this. It is permissible to give your opinion in the conclusion but try to do so subtly and try not to sound too pompous or authoritarian.
Usually your viewpoint will be obvious from your discussion, so there is no need to conclude with statements such as: In conclusion, I think Hamlet is a great play.
Allow your enthusiasm for the topic to show in how you discuss it. Make sure that you do not use the conclusion as an opportunity to engage in an over-generalised an unfocussed 'rant'. Be careful with tenses. In a conclusion, you will usually want to use the present perfect e. The aim of this dissertation has been to Be very careful about using the word "conclusion" anywhere other than the conclusion itself!
For surface processes, studies using well-controlled reactive beams impinging on well-characterized surfaces are essential for enhancing our understanding and developing mechanistic models. Introductions What is the purpose of an introduction in the scientific field? It is often tempting to go off at a tangent and to say things that are completely unrelated to the topic. Trzeciak and Mackay Study skills for academic writing. To combat this problem, leguminous plants have developed a symbiotic relationship with the nitrogen fixing bacteria, Rhizobium spp. The Plasma Processing Program should emphasize a coordinated approach toward generating the diagnostic and basic data needed for improved plasma and plasma-surface simulation capability. This will be further discussed in the next chapter.
The Conclusion of a Review Paper
Our consultants can assist students to find the meaning of the information they have collected and to present it in a manner than can be defended. Open this chapter by reminding the reader of the purpose of the study. Methods and Procedures: Summarize the approach. Major Findings Summarize the Chapter 4: Results.
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Ask your tutor if you are not sure. Always be very careful to check what the conventions are in the discipline you are working in, and ideally, it is best to look at examples of past students' work so that you can see what you are aiming for. Scientific papers use paraphrases and summaries often but not direct quotations. Due to the largely empirical nature of many aspects of plasma processing, proper training in the traditional scientific method, as provided in laboratory classes, is a necessary component of undergraduate education. To combat this problem, leguminous plants have developed a symbiotic relationship with the nitrogen fixing bacteria, Rhizobium spp.
Avoid Common Mistakes
For studying plasma-surface interactions, there is an urgent need for in situ analytical tools that provide information on surface composition, electronic structure, and material properties. The Plasma Processing Program should not only provide focus on common goals and promote coordination of the research performed by the national laboratories, universities, and industrial laboratories, but also integrate plasma equipment suppliers into the program. However, poor coordination and inefficient transfer of insights gained from this research have inhibited its use in the design of new plasma reactors and processes. This relationship and its mechanisms have become the center of much study, both in the physiological mechanisms and population interactions.
A conclusion is the last paragraph in your research paper, or the last part in any other type of presentation. Why do it? A conclusion is like the final chord in a song. It makes the listener feel that the piece is complete and well done. The same is true for your audience.
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Introductions What is the purpose of an introduction in the scientific field? An introduction sets up the question or issue to be resolved or studied. An introduction orients the reader to the problem at hand. Relate the problem to a theory. Explain how and why this research is important. Essay topics for 6th graders much information should you give up front?
The number and order of paragraphs parallels the number and order of main topical sections of the paper. Considering that the average lifespan is increasing worldwide, understanding the brain mechanisms that are responsible for age-related cognitive impairment, and finding therapeutic agents that might curb this decline, becomes increasingly important. Some people believe mistakenly that a conclusion is the place for you to relax and 'say whatever you want'. Scientific papers use paraphrases and summaries often but not direct quotations. If it seems impossible to give a clear answer now, tell your readers what further research is needed, or what actions may help answer this question in the future.
Writing in Different Genres
Cite several studies from Chapter 2 for comparison and contrast with the results. Never express concerns about results of your research or your authority. This report highlights this critical issue. These properties present a challenge to the plasma scientist and an opportunity to the technologist. Similarly, plasma reactors have also been developed by trial and error. The critical basic data needed for simulations and experiments have not been prioritized.
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Try a practice activity 5. Check out further advice on writing conclusions 6. Download a checklist to help you edit your written work What are the typical 'ingredients' of a conclusion? Fish farming business plan sample and Mackay Study skills for academic writing. New York: Prentice Hall observe a number of useful "ingredients" that form part of a conclusion.
Make Your Conclusion Effective
A program should be supported that focuses on development of new instrumentation for real-time, in situ monitoring for control and analysis. Keep things together The best structure for a research paper includes an introduction and a conclusion which are linked to each other. Checklist for prewriting and revising introductions to scientific papers, Ask yourself: What am I trying to discover or prove? Finding: Technically, U. Accordingly, the panel recommends: The Plasma Processing Program should include a thrust toward development of computer-aided design tools for developing and designing new plasma reactors. The opportunities for materials processing stem from the ability of a plasma to provide a highly excited medium that has no chemical or physical counterpart in a natural, equilibrium environment.
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It must summarize the whole paper and explain its main purpose. Any conclusion consists of a few elements, so you can choose different approaches depending on your agenda and the paper type. We decided to provide you with useful tips on what to do in order to make your conclusion effective, and what to avoid. Make sure that this part of the conclusion is concise and clear. Usually, the restated topic is only one sentence long.
Recent studies have challenged that view and suggested that while somatic activity essays the DBS electrode may be suppressed, high frequency stimulation increases and regularizes the output from the stimulated nucleus by directly activating axons of local projection neurons. It now appears that suprathreshold currents spreading really regions comprised of axonal fibers passing writing or through the target hate as well as surrounding nuclei may also contribute to the beneficial effects of DBS. Together, the stimulation-induced ielts writing answer paper format of neuronal output patterns are thought to prevent transmission of pathologic bursting and oscillatory activity within the basal ganglia thalamocortical network, write my essay for free for me enabling compensatory mechanisms that facilitate normal movements. This theory, however, does not entirely explain why therapeutic latencies differ between motor symptoms and why after turning off a DBS system the reemergence of motor symptoms differs among patients.
Electronics and aerospace are the two major industries that are served by plasma processing technologies, although the automotive industry is likely to become a significant user of plasma-processed materials like those now in widespread use in the aerospace industry. Make sure that the conclusion is based on what you have said before. Why do it?
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They represent the contribution to the knowledge. Keep things together The best structure for a research paper includes an introduction and a conclusion which are linked to each other. For the first time in the dissertation, the researcher can state a personal opinion when the collected data support it. Important though this is, however, you also need to be sure to sell your research in the conclusion - so it is best not to be too negative or over-modest about your achievements at this point. Accordingly, the panel recommends: As part of the Plasma Processing Program, government and industry together should support cooperative programs specific to plasma processing with universities and national laboratories. Be wary of this.
Certainly, conclusions will be even more important in a dissertation or thesis, purely because of the length of the piece. A summary of the many industrial applications of plasma-based systems for processing materials is included in Chapter 2. However, you will generally need a final section to indicate that you are 'rounding off' the discusion. As a result, the detailed descriptions required to guide the transfer of processes from one reactor to another or to scale processes from a small to a large reactor are not available. Current findings suggest that the cooperative effect of the mammalian diving reflex and hypothermia plays a critical role in patient survival during a cold-water immersion incident. Download a checklist to help you edit your written work What are the typical 'ingredients' of a conclusion?
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You can usually do this in one paragraph. Most often, you will need to just restate your topic and thesis statement. Any conclusion consists of a few elements, so you can choose different approaches depending on your agenda and the paper type.
A conclusion is the last paragraph in your research paper, or the last part in any other type of presentation.
A conclusion is the last paragraph in your research paper, or the last part in any other type of presentation. A summary of the many industrial applications of plasma-based systems for processing materials is included in Chapter 2.