Before you start to write make an outline of how you want to argue. There should be a logical progression of ideas - one that will be easy for the reader to follow. If your paper is well organized, the reader will be led along in what seems a natural way.
If you jump about in your essay, the reader will balk. It will take a real effort to follow you, and he or she may feel it not worthwhile. It is a good idea to let your outline simmer for a few days before you write your first draft.
Does it still seem to flow smoothly when you come back to it? If not, the best prose in the world will not be enough to make it work. Use the right words. Once you have determined your outline, you must select the exact words that will convey your meaning to the reader. A dictionary is almost essential here. Do not settle for a word that you think comes close to capturing the sense you have in mind. Notice that "infer" does not mean "imply"; "disinterested" does not mean "uninterested"; and "reference" does not mean either "illusion" or "allusion.
Notice that certain words such as "therefore," "hence," "since," and "follows from" are strong logical connectives. When you use such expressions you are asserting that certain tight logical relations hold between the claims in question. You had better be right. Finally, check the spelling of any word you are not sure of. There is no excuse for "existance" appearing in any philosophy essay.
Support your claims. Assume that your reader is constantly asking such questions as "Why should I accept that? Most first attempts at writing philosophy essays fall down on this point. Substantiate your claims whenever there is reason to think that your critics would not grant them. Give credit. When quoting or paraphrasing, always give some citation.
Indicate your indebtedness, whether it is for specific words, general ideas, or a particular line of argument. To use another writer's words, ideas, or arguments as if they were your own is to plagiarize.
Plagiarism is against the rules of academic institutions and is dishonest. It can jeopardize or even terminate your academic career. Why run that risk when your paper is improved it appears stronger not weaker if you give credit where credit is due? That is because appropriately citing the works of others indicates an awareness of some of the relevant literature on the subject. Anticipate objections. If your position is worth arguing for, there are going to be reasons which have led some people to reject it.
Such reasons will amount to criticisms of your stand. A good way to demonstrate the strength of your position is to consider one or two of the best of these objections and show how they can be overcome. This amounts to rejecting the grounds for rejecting your case, and is analogous to stealing your enemies' ammunition before they have a chance to fire it at you.
The trick here is to anticipate the kinds of objections that your critics would actually raise against you if you did not disarm them first. The other challenge is to come to grips with the criticisms you have cited.
You must argue that these criticisms miss the mark as far as your case is concerned, or that they are in some sense ill-conceived despite their plausibility. It takes considerable practice and exposure to philosophical writing to develop this engaging style of argumentation, but it is worth it.
Edit boldly. I have never met a person whose first draft of a paper could not be improved significantly by rewriting. The secret to good writing is rewriting - often. Of course it will not do just to reproduce the same thing again. Better drafts are almost always shorter drafts - not because ideas have been left out, but because words have been cut out as ideas have been clarified.
Every word that is not needed only clutters. Clear sentences do not just happen. Amongst his work is his tiresome effort to work on the mind and the body. He drew a unique connection between the two and mind-body dualism. He argues that the mind is completely different than the physical body of a human being. Following is a brief discussion of how Descartes thinks the mind is in unison with the body and vice versa.
In some courses, assignments may call for detailed interpretation of a text rather than an assessment of it. Such questions are posed when there is disagreement among scholars about how to interpret a philosopher. In such essays, you will need to examine texts very closely, find passages which support a yes or no answer, choose where you stand in the debate, and defend your answer.
Critically Evaluate a Philosophical Theory When studying a philosophical theory, you will need to think about both its strengths and weaknesses. For example, is a particular theory of art such as the view that art is the expression of emotion comprehensive: does it apply to all the arts and all types of art, or only to some?
Is it logically consistent or does it contain contradictions? Are there counterexamples to it? Be selective, especially in a shorter paper.
In a 1,word essay, for instance, discuss one or two arguments in favour and one or two against. In a 2, or 2,word paper, you can include more arguments and possible replies. Finally, plan carefully: leave enough space for your assessment. A different type of critical evaluation assignment may ask for a comparative appraisal of two or more theories.The following remarks, though they will not guarantee a top quality paper, should help you determine where best to direct your efforts. I offer first some general comments on philosophical writing, and then some specific "do"s and "don't"s. One of the first points to be clear about is that a philosophical essay is quite different from an essay in most other subjects.
A good way to demonstrate the strength of your position is to consider one or two of the best of these objections and show how they can be overcome.
What arguments does the author make e. If you cannot formulate your thesis this way, odds are you are not clear enough about it. But how will your opponent respond? From making decisions by using the brain, to being able to sense all five senses from the body, both parts illustrate its importance of existence. Does it still seem to flow smoothly when you come back to it? The second part of his theory is when he claims that the question itself curtails from the fabricated conjecture that two materials with completely dissimilar faunas cannot act on each other.
Before you start to write your paper, you should be able to state exactly what it is that you are trying to show. The secret to good writing is rewriting - often. The principal presupposition concerns a clarification of how the mind and the body are united. You will present arguments. It is safest to assume that your reader is intelligent and knows a lot about your subject, but disagrees with you. In studying philosophy, students aim to do the following: understand such philosophical questions and the concepts, arguments, and theories that philosophers use to address them think critically about such arguments and theories develop their own answers to philosophical questions Writing philosophy essays is a key part of studying philosophy.