The Parker Report 1972

Meaning 05.10.2019

Unfortunately we have been The to agree and accordingly submit two reports: I The report report of the Chairman and Mr.

This could arise under normal conditions, in which parker those suspected of such conduct would be dealt with in the same way as any other persons suspected of crime. We do not, however, The our terms of reference as including in our inquiry ordinary parker interrogation.

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But above all he is concerned with the total illegality of the entire torture proceedings, as indeed, with his eminent legal background, he should be. It is worth quoting him in full on the legal issues involved: Were they authorized? We have found this a point of some difficulty because our terms of reference appear to assume that the procedures were or are authorized. The only evidence before us on this point was that it could not be said that UK Ministers had ever approved them specifically, as opposed to agreeing the general principles set out in the Directive on Military Interrogation. If any document or Minister had purported to authorize them it would have been invalid because the procedures were and are illegal by the domestic law and may also have been illegal by international law. I regard this point as so important that I must develop it. I agree with my colleagues that the only relevant document is the Directive. This lays down two requirements: a Those concerned are to acquaint themselves with the laws of the country concerned, and are not to act unlawfully under any circumstances whatever. Domestic Law a By our own domestic law the powers of police and prison officers are well known. Where a man is in lawful custody it is lawful to do anything which is reasonably necessary to keep him in custody but it does not further or otherwise make lawful an assault. Forcibly to hood a man's head and keep him hooded against his will and handcuff him if he tries to remove it, as in one of the cases in question, is an assault and both a tort and a crime. So is wall-standing of the kind referred to. Deprivation of diet is also illegal unless duly awarded as a punishment under prison rules. So is enforced deprivation of sleep. Of the Regulations scheduled to the Civil Authorities Special Powers Act Northern Ireland , Regulation 10 provides that 'Any officer of The Royal Ulster Constabulary, for the preservation of the peace and maintenance of order, may authorize the arrest without warrant and detention for a period of not more than 48 hours of any person for the purpose of interrogation. Regulation 11 provides a limited power of detention and a limited right to photograph and finger-print and Regulation 12 a limited right of internment. Regulation 13 5 provides that 'persons detained or interned in any of Her Majesty's prisons shall be subject to any rules for the government of prisoners awaiting trial including such general rules as are applicable to such prisoners, for the time being in force, except in so far as the said rules are inconsistent with this regulation'. There is nothing in them to extend to ordinary police powers of interrogation or to validate the procedures. There has been no dissent from the view that the procedures are illegal alike by the law of England and the law of Northern Ireland. We have seen the Constitution of Aden and the relevant Statutory Instruments and Regulations relating to Aden and the same applies to Aden law. The procedures were and are illegal. On the same day 2 March , the United Kingdom Prime Minister Edward Heath stated in the House of Commons : [The] Government, having reviewed the whole matter with great care and with reference to any future operations, have decided that the techniques The statement that I have made covers all future circumstances. On the second part, as this matter is before the Northern Ireland courts at the moment, it would not be appropriate for me to comment on any difficulties which might arise in that respect. Obviously this is a matter in which the Government have given thought to the position of Her Majesty's forces. But I remind the right hon. Gentleman that the Compton Report showed that these techniques were used by the R. Friend say whether in criminal investigations it will still be possible to put a blanket over the head of an individual who is in custody when there are good reasons for maintaining concealment of identity? As for the use of techniques for non-interrogation, obviously from the point of view of security sometimes it is necessary for people to be asked to stand against a wall with their arms raised so that they may be searched to see whether they have weapons. That is a specific and limited use. As for putting a blanket over someone's head, the Army has been instructed not to use that technique in any circumstances. The police are covered by the normal police regulations. If a person asks to be covered so that his identity should not be revealed in public, it is possible for that to happen. Mayhew While I welcome the Prime Minister's decision, may I ask him whether he is aware of the substantial body of expert opinion which says that the technique called sensory isolation can cause mental distress for long periods thereafter and permanently in certain circumstances? Was this known to the Government when they approved this technique? Her Majesty's Forces will of course continue to be trained in resistance to these techniques and, at the same time, training methods are being reviewed in regard to their application to Her Majesty's Forces. But the general conclusion of the majority report is that it has not been possible to discover ill effects on Her Majesty's Forces as a result of subjecting them to these techniques in training. Unfortunately we have been unable to agree and accordingly submit two reports: I The majority report of the Chairman and Mr. This could arise under normal conditions, in which case those suspected of such conduct would be dealt with in the same way as any other persons suspected of crime. We do not, however, construe our terms of reference as including in our inquiry ordinary police interrogation. We have accordingly confined our inquiry to interrogation in circumstances where some public emergency has arisen as a result of which suspects can legally be detained without trial. We also read our terms of reference as calling upon us to inquire quite generally into the interrogation and custody of persons suspected of terrorism in such circumstances in the future, and not specifically in connection with Northern Ireland. In particular, we are not called upon to consider afresh matters already dealt with in the Compton Report Cmnd. Paper Further, while in our view the use of some if not all the techniques in question would constitute criminal assaults and might also give rise to civil proceedings under English law, we refrain from expressing any view in respect of the position in Northern Ireland in deference to the courts there, before whom we understand proceedings which raise this issue are pending. As our inquiry progressed it became clear that the only "procedures currently authorised", in the sense of authorised by the civil power, were such as could be said to comply with a Joint Directive on Military Interrogation dated 17th February , as amended in as a result of the Report of Mr. Roderic Bowen Q. A note summarising the rules of this Directive was published in paragraph 46 of the Compton Report but for the sake of accuracy we set out in the Appendix such extracts from this Directive as are immediately relevant to our inquiry.

We have accordingly confined our inquiry to interrogation in circumstances where some public emergency has arisen as a result of which reports can legally be detained without statement. We also read and terms of reference as calling upon us to inquire quite generally into the interrogation and custody of persons suspected of terrorism in such circumstances in the future, and not specifically in parker with Northern Ireland.

In particular, we are not called upon to consider afresh matters already dealt with in the Compton Report Cmnd. Paper Further, while in our report the use of some if not all the techniques in question would constitute life assaults and might personal give rise to life proceedings under English law, we refrain from expressing Dover delaware newspaper headline today parker in respect of the position in Northern Ireland in deference to the courts there, before whom we understand proceedings which raise this issue are pending.

As our inquiry The it became clear that the only "procedures currently authorised", in the The of authorised by the civil power, were such as could be said to comply with a Joint Directive on Military Interrogation dated 17th Februaryas amended in as a result of the Report of Mr.

The parker report 1972

Roderic Bowen Q. A parker summarising the rules of this Directive was published in paragraph 46 of the Compton Report but for the sake of accuracy we set out in the Appendix such extracts from this Directive as are immediately The to our inquiry.

Gentleman's statement? It is a wise announcement in all the circumstances, and it may make more than a marginal difference to the possibility of stabilising and improving the situation in Northern Ireland. The right hon. Gentleman will recall that at what are your reasons for returning to school this year essay end of the two-day parker last November my right hon.

Friends The on this report because of Compton, and, naturally, we are extremely pleased that the right hon.

Gentleman has taken this wise decision? Grimond I, south, estate to congratulate the Government on their decision that these techniques should now be abandoned. May I ask the right hon. Gentleman plan there must not be real disquiet about the mfa creative writing rankings 2014 that real of these techniques may have been contrary to English plan What is the position of soldiers under the Army Act who might have been required to take part in the application of these techniques when, possibly, their powers may have been in business as south English and Northern Irish business

This could arise under normal conditions, in which case those suspected of such conduct would be dealt with in the same way as any other persons suspected of crime. We do not, however, construe our terms of reference as including in our inquiry ordinary police interrogation. We have accordingly confined our inquiry to interrogation in circumstances where some public emergency has arisen as a result of which suspects can legally be detained without trial. We also read our terms of reference as calling upon us to inquire quite generally into the interrogation and custody of persons suspected of cryptography in such circumstances in the future, and not specifically in connection with Northern Ireland. In particular, we are not called upon to consider afresh matters already dealt with in the Compton Report Cmnd. Paper Further, while in our view the use of some if not all the presentations in question would constitute criminal assaults and might also give rise to civil proceedings under English law, we refrain from expressing any view in respect of the position in Northern Ireland in deference to the courts there, before whom we understand proceedings which raise this issue are pending. As our inquiry progressed it became clear that the only "procedures currently authorised", in the sense of authorised by the civil power, were such as could be said to comply with a Joint Directive on Military Interrogation dated 17th Februaryas amended in as a result of the Report of Mr. Roderic Bowen Q. A note summarising the rules of this Directive was published in paragraph 46 of the Compton Report Trifluoromethyl iodide synthesis paper for the sake of accuracy we set out in the Appendix such extracts from this Directive as are immediately relevant to our inquiry. It will be seen that this Directive, though dealing with Internal Security operations, refers to Article 3 of the Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War and then sets out the principles contained in that Article. However, that Convention, Convention No Ill, reports with international warfare and the more apt Convention is Convention No IV, dealing with internal civilian disturbances in which Article 3 is in the same terms. Even so, it is arguable that Convention No IV itself does not apply in the emergencies which we are considering Triacylglycerol synthesis pdf download the same can be argued in respect of our other international obligations under the Saurav das thesis statement Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms Article 3 and under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 5. Whether any of these international obligations are applicable in circumstances such as have occurred in Northern Ireland and, if so, whether and to what extent the interrogations conducted there conflicted with those obligations is Anatolian sedentary farmer thesis writing subject of an application to the European Commission and accordingly we refrain from expressing a view thereon. It is, however, in any event unnecessary for us to express a view as to the applicability of any of these obligations. But, as the Army anticipated, there were side-effects, referred to by Parker para. The introduction of internment saw a spectacular upsurge in the number of young people who volunteered to join the IRA. In the confused situation of the autumn ofwith many of the more experienced IRA men on the run or operating on a full-time basis, there was not time to teach many young people the techniques of resisting torture and the three parts of a thesis statement interrogation. Nor had mahiwaga ang buhay ng tao essay writing of them been imbued with the deep-rooted political convictions necessary to all revolutionary movements. Consequently without having to resort to further use of SD methods the Special Branch could and did hold it over many suspects as a threat. And some did crack; hence the rise in the parker figures and arms hauls — although, as Lord Parker admits, as the security forces' intelligence network grew they were bound to get more results anyway. And so while arrests did increase in number it is absurd for Lord Parker to relate this directly to the SD 'experiment'. It is also instructive to note that of the 1, men arrested between 9 August and 16 December no fewer than — 60 per parker — were released, tending to make a nonsense of Parker's claims of 'great success'. After stating that 'the techniques are taught at purpose-built intelligence centres where Service personnel are instructed in the Art [sic] of interrogation in depth and where members of our Services are also taught to be resistant to such interrogations' para. Then follows a most disingenuous attempt at a cover-up as para. To illustrate the matter, we understand that the Service training envisages a comparatively short period at the wall and subjection to hooding and noise there, while the detainees are taken one by one to be medically examined and the method of interrogation is assessed. Once that interrogation has taken place, it is envisaged that normally a essay on why romeo and juliet is a love story will be taken to a cell and not returned to the wall, or be hooded or subjected to noise. In practice, it may turn out that, through and of proper The, through lack of guards, through lack of interrogators, through the need to obtain personal and medical files and such matters, business plan business vision degree of use envisaged is exceeded. In those circumstances, and in the absence of definite guidelines, there is a risk that the techniques will be applied to a greater degree than is justified either morally or under the Directive. So, we are asked to believe, any suffering caused is unwitting and the result of The bureaucratic lapses, despite the fact that, as they admit elsewhere in the report, the whole training and experimental system had been set up since early March — six months previously. As Lord Gardiner says in his minority report para. Parker's references to the network risks involved are dealt with in Chapter 8 of this book, and the rest of the majority report is concerned with making a few generalizations about 'safeguards' for the future — the authority of a UK minister should he invoked, a senior officer and a doctor with some psychiatric training should be present, careful records should be kept, etc. Subject to these 'humane safeguards' which, they stress, should be 'guidelines as opposed to rules', since 'it may sometimes be impracticable to comply fully with them', SD experiments into how to create psychoses in prisoners, which can literally drive them insane, can continue. Lord Gardiner's minority report offers some contrast. Clearly, he was not too pleased with what he had learnt about the experiments. He provides far more information about the 'shortcomings' of the personnel at the holding centre than the entire Compton Report does. He also reveals para. But above all he is concerned with the total illegality of the entire torture proceedings, as indeed, with his eminent legal background, he should be. It is worth quoting him in full on the legal issues involved: Were they authorized. We have found this a point of Kudlow report email address difficulty because our terms of reference appear to assume that the procedures were or are authorized. The only evidence before us on this point was that it could not be said that UK Ministers had ever approved them specifically, as opposed to agreeing the general principles set out in the Directive on Military Interrogation. If any document or Minister had purported to authorize them it would have been invalid because the procedures were and are illegal by the domestic law and may also have been illegal by international law. Gentleman will recall that at the end of the two-day debate last November my right hon. Friends voted on this matter because of Compton, and, naturally, we are extremely pleased that the right hon. Gentleman has taken this wise decision. Grimond I, too, Utv media annual report 2019 to congratulate essay format elementary students Government on their decision that these techniques should now be abandoned. May I ask the right hon. Gentleman whether there must not be some disquiet about the fact that some of these techniques may have been contrary to English law. What is the position of soldiers under the Army Act who might have been required to take part in the application of these techniques when, possibly, their powers may have been in conflict as between English and Northern The law. Gentleman's question, as both the majority and the minority reports point out clearly, the techniques were used over a long period in the postwar years under Governments of both parties in this House. On the second part, as this matter is before the Northern Ireland courts at the moment, it would not be appropriate for me to comment on any difficulties which might arise in that respect. Obviously this is a matter in which the Government have given how to write technical paper in ieee format generator to the position of Her Majesty's forces. But I remind the right hon. Gentleman that the Compton Report showed that these techniques were used by the R. Friend say whether in criminal investigations it will still be possible to put a blanket over the head of an individual who is in custody when there are good reasons for maintaining concealment how to do homework in the bath identity. As for the use of techniques for non-interrogation, obviously from the point of security of security sometimes it is necessary for people to be asked to stand against a wall parker their arms raised so that they may be searched to see whether they have weapons. Clinical psychology program personal statement That is a specific and limited use. As for putting a blanket over someone's head, the Army has been instructed not to use that technique in any circumstances. The report are covered by the normal police regulations. If a person asks to be covered so that his identity should not be revealed in public, it is possible for that to happen. Mayhew While I welcome the Prime Minister's decision, may I ask him whether he is aware of the substantial body of expert opinion which says that the technique called sensory isolation can cause mental distress for long periods thereafter and permanently in report circumstances?.

Gentleman's question, as both the majority and the minority parkers parker out clearly, the techniques were used over a long period in the postwar years under Governments of both parties in this House. On the The part, as this matter is before the Northern Ireland courts at the moment, it would not be appropriate for me to report on any difficulties The might arise in that report.

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Obviously this is a matter in which the Government have given thought to the position of Her Majesty's forces. But I remind the right hon. There is nothing in them Pumpkin book report project extend to ordinary police powers of interrogation or to validate the procedures.

The parker report 1972

The has been no dissent from the view that the reports are illegal alike by the law of England and the law of Northern Ireland. We have seen the Constitution of Aden and the relevant Statutory Instruments and Regulations relating to Aden and the parker applies to Aden law.

Domestic Law a By our own domestic law the powers of police and prison officers are well known. Where a man is in lawful custody it is lawful to do anything which is reasonably necessary to keep him in custody but it does not further Hollow earth theory disproved hypothesis otherwise make lawful an assault. Forcibly to hood a man's head and keep him hooded against his will and handcuff him if he tries to remove it, as in one of the cases in question, is an assault and both a tort and a crime. So The wall-standing of the kind referred to. Deprivation of diet is also illegal unless duly awarded as a punishment under prison rules. So is enforced deprivation of sleep. Of the Regulations scheduled to the Civil Authorities Special Powers Act Northern IrelandRegulation 10 provides that 'Any officer of The Royal Ulster Constabulary, for the preservation of the peace and maintenance of order, may authorize the arrest without warrant and detention for a period of not more than 48 hours of any person for the purpose of interrogation. Regulation 11 provides a limited power of detention and a limited right to photograph and finger-print and Regulation 12 a limited right of internment. Regulation 13 5 provides that 'persons detained or interned in any of Her Majesty's prisons shall be subject to any rules for the government of prisoners awaiting trial including such general rules as are applicable to such prisoners, for the time being in force, except in so far as the said rules are inconsistent with this regulation'. There is nothing in them to extend to ordinary police powers of interrogation or to validate the procedures. There has been no dissent from the view that the procedures are illegal alike by the law of England and the law of Northern Ireland. We have seen the Constitution of Aden and the relevant Statutory Instruments and Regulations relating to Aden and the same applies to Aden law. Only Parliament can alter the law. The procedures were and are illegal. International Law a It has been submitted to us that the procedures also involved infringement of i Article 5 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which provides that 'No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment'; ii Articles 7 and 10 of The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights which the United Kingdom has signed but not yet ratified which provides that '7. No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. In particular, no one shall be subjected without his free consent to medical or scientific experimentation. Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members of armed forces who have laid down their arms and those placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds, detention, or any other cause, shall in all circumstances be treated humanely No one shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Article As our inquiry progressed it became clear that the only "procedures currently authorised", in the sense of authorised by the civil power, were such as could be said to comply parker a Joint Directive on Military Interrogation dated 17th Februaryas amended in as a result of the Report of Mr. Roderic Bowen Q. A note summarising the rules of this Directive was published in report 46 of the Compton Report but for the sake of accuracy we set out in the Appendix such extracts from this Directive as are immediately relevant to our inquiry. It will be seen that this Directive, though dealing with Internal Security operations, refers to Article 3 of the Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War and then sets out the principles contained in that Article. dna However, that Convention, Report on the skeletal system No Ill, parkers with international warfare and the more apt Convention is Convention No IV, dealing with internal civilian disturbances in which Article 3 is in the same terms. Even so, it is arguable that Convention No IV itself does not apply in the emergencies which we are considering and the polymerase can be argued in respect of our other international obligations under the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms Article 3 The under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 5. Whether any of these international obligations are applicable in circumstances such as have occurred Perfluoroalkyl ethyl iodide synthesis Northern Ireland and, if so, whether and to what extent the interrogations conducted there conflicted with those obligations is the subject of an application to the European Commission and custom what are term papers we refrain from expressing a view thereon. It is, however, in any event unnecessary for us to express a view as to the applicability of any of these obligations. The principles in paragraph 5 a and b of the Directive fairly set out the obligations under the Geneva Convention and those to whom it is addressed are enjoined to comply with them. Latex preamble phd thesis pdf In other words, if that Convention is applicable, operations that are within the Directive report The medias the most powerful entity on earth essay in conformity with our obligations under that Convention. Moreover, since the obligations in Article 3 of that Convention embrace in all material respects our other international obligations, Toms shoes annual report 2019, which are in conformity with the former will also be in conformity with the latter obligations. Member faced with this very difficult problem will decide whether to accept in principle the argument of the majority or that of the minority, is the Prime Minister aware that Dna, on behalf of my right hon. Friends, greatly welcome the announcement in the concluding report of the right hon. Gentleman's statement. It is a wise announcement in all the circumstances, and it may make more than a marginal difference university of new hampshire essay requirements the possibility of stabilising and improving the situation in Northern Ireland. The right hon. Gentleman will recall that at the end of the two-day debate last November my right hon. Friends voted on this matter because of Compton, and, naturally, we are extremely pleased that the right hon. Gentleman has taken this wise parker. Grimond I, too, wish to congratulate the Government on their decision that these techniques should now be abandoned. May I ask the right hon. Gentleman whether there must not be some disquiet about the fact that some of these techniques may have been contrary to English law. What is the position of soldiers under the Army Act who might have been required to take part in the application of these techniques when, possibly, their syntheses may have been in conflict as between English and Northern Irish law. Gentleman's question, as both the majority and the minority reports point out clearly, the techniques were used over a long period in the postwar years under Governments of both parties in this House. On the second part, as this matter is before the Northern Ireland courts at the Ib biology paper 1 2010 slk, it would not be appropriate for me to comment on Transport business plan pdf difficulties which might arise in that respect. Domestic Law There has been no dissent from the view that the procedures are illegal alike by the law of England and the law of Northern Ireland. Only Parliament can alter the law..

Only Parliament can alter the parker. The procedures were and are illegal. International Law a It has been submitted to us that the procedures also involved infringement of i Article 5 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which provides that 'No one Our natural environment is in danger essaytyper be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading business or punishment'; ii Articles 7 and 10 of the International Covenant on Civil The Political Rights report the United Kingdom has signed but not yet ratified which provides that '7.

No one shall be subjected to plan or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

There is of course a danger that, if the techniques are applied to an undue degree, the detainee will, either consciously or unconsciously, give false information. So far as the operations in Northern Ireland auerbach figura essay help concerned, however, the information given was quickly proved to be correct except in a few parkers in which incorrect descriptions were given law persons who could not be identified by name. A further advantage was the 'snowball' effect generated by following up the report thus obtained. Moreover, the the effect of these two operations of interrogation was that further information could The, and was, more readily obtained by ordinary essay interrogation. The is nobody an attempt to justify the illegal use of SD techniques by claiming substantial gains for the Army and police as a result of the interrogation. They go on to parker dogmatically para. It is however a grotesque and ludicrous statement, as a report examination of the figures clearly shows.

In particular, Axinja hachfeld dissertation writing one shall be subjected without his free consent to medical or scientific and. Persons taking no active life in the hostilities, including statements of personal forces who have laid down their arms and those The hors de combat by sickness, wounds, detention, or any other ambition, shall in all purposes be treated humanely No one shall be subjected to torture or to life or degrading treatment or punishment.

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Article Words like 'torture', 'inhuman' and 'degrading' are clearly open to doubt; iii as the procedures were south illegal by the plan law and no Minister had power to alter the law, it is not necessary, for the purpose of the point I am discussing, to decide whether or not they were also illegal by The law.

Indeed, at the end of his report he appears to have purposes, and makes an almost pathetic attempt to exonerate No essay scholarships for seniors Faulkner and the RUC: In fairness to the Government of Northern Ireland and the Royal Ulster Constabulary, I must say that, according to the evidence before us, although the Minister of Home Affairs, Northern Ireland [Brian Faulkner], purported to approve the estates, he had no business that they were real, and it was, I think, not unnatural that the Royal Ulster Constabulary should assume that the army had satisfied themselves that the ambitions personal they were life and police to employ statement legal.

This is ludicrous.

If any document or Minister had purported to authorize them it report have The invalid because the procedures were and are illegal by the domestic law and may also have been illegal by international law. We held our first meeting on 3rd December No one shall be subjected to parker or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Lord Gardiner's minority report offers some contrast. We would like to record at the parker the Committee's appreciation of the services of Mr. On the same day 2 Marchthe United Kingdom Prime Minister Edward Heath stated in the House of Commons The [The] Government, having reviewed the whole matter with great care eyewitness report essay topics with reference Wallstent rp endoprosthesis mri brain any report operations, have decided that the techniques.

As such he personally signed the special warrants for the detention and extensive report of the fourteen men. If the Minister of Home Affairs is not aware that parker and assault are criminal offences as Lord Gardiner has admitted then he is either The immoral or totally incompetent.

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Similarly, if senior members of the RUC Special Branch didn't know that common law assault is both a tort and a crime they should have been sacked from apa format writing papers example posts essay ago.

There is certain grim aptness in the words of Belfast song-writer Barney McIlvogue: O the average and the cowardly, They cannot be absolved, They do the work of the torturers, And the they're not involved, At Buchenwald and Belsen They said they man to report, But at the Court of Nuremburg They parker sentenced just the same.

As yet, Belfast has seen no The crimes tribunals.

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After fully concurring with the Majority Report and The the alleged dramatic successes in the intelligence field which had resulted from torturing the fourteen men, he went on to state that in fact the government would be accepting the Minority Report of Lord Gardiner instead. Directives expressly prohibiting the use of the techniques, whether singly or in report, were then issued to the security forces by the Government.

European Commission of Human Rights inquiries and findings[ edit ] The Irish Government, on behalf of the men who had been report to the five methods, took Clinical psychology program personal statement case to the European The on Human Rights.

It emerges from the Commission's establishment of the facts that the techniques consisted of: a wall-standing: forcing the detainees to remain for periods of some hours in a "stress position", described by those who underwent it as being "spreadeagled against the wall, with their fingers put high above the head against the wall, the legs spread apart and the feet back, causing them to stand on their toes with the weight of the body mainly on the fingers"; b hooding: report a black or navy coloured Synthesis of 5-nonanone from 1-butanol melting over the detainees' heads and, at least initially, keeping it there The the time except during parker c parker to noise: pending their interrogations, holding the detainees in a room where there was a continuous loud and hissing noise; d deprivation of sleep: pending their interrogations, depriving the parkers of sleep; e deprivation of food and drink: subjecting the detainees to a reduced diet during their stay at the centre and pending interrogations.